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Children’s Sophisticated Use of Digital Technology

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, 781 - 798, 26.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.30703/cije.773845

Abstract

The literature about digital media and technology usage of children has two faces. On one side the production-oriented sophisticated use of digital devices is reported while on the other side it is a source of concern due to excessive and pointless use. Some of the children are tech-consumers in terms of using their digital devices and some children use them beneficially. This qualitative study adopts a phenomenological approach, with a focus to draw a conclusion for educators and aims to shed a light on the technological device use of children in terms of duration, purpose, preferences, and feelings about the usage. A total of 61 children aged 7-15 years participated in the study. The children were from different backgrounds such as different parts of the country, different types of schools, and different socio-economic levels. Identifying the similarities and differences of the characteristics of their usage is thought to reveal the factors that motivate the beneficial use of digital technology or that lead to consumption as a means of leisure time tool. The findings of this study enable to provide recommendations to teachers to guide students in the beneficial use of technology. Furthermore, the study has some suggestions in a wider scope of the implications for practice and/or policy.

References

  • Aktaş, E., Balkan, B., ve Karapınar, K.(2009). Biga’da bilim teknolojileri kullanımının öğrencilerin başarı ve harcama düzeylerine olası etkileri. Kocaeli Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(7), 39-48. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Erkan_Aktas/publication/48376290_Biga'da_Bilisim_Teknolojileri_Kullaniminin_Ogrencilerin_Basari_ve_Harcama_Duzeylerine_Olasi_Etkileri/links/544011150cf2be1758cff918.pdf
  • Altun, D. (2018). The efficacy of multimedia stories in preschoolers’ explicit and implicit story comprehensio. Early Childhood Education Journal
  • Aral, N., and Doğan Keskin, A. (2018). Examining 0-6 year olds’ use of technological devices from parents’ points of view. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addiction, 5, 177–208.http://dx.doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2018.5.2.0054
  • APA Task Force On Violent Media (2015). Technical Report on the Review of the Violent Video Game Literature, Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/violent-media.aspx
  • Aydın, B. (2017). Three birds with a stone: Technology integration in language education. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 6(2), 177-190.
  • Beetham, H., and Sharpe, R. (2007). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: designing and delivering e-learning. Routledge Publishing, NY.
  • Blum-Ross, A., and S. Livingstone (2016) Families and screen time: Current advice and emerging research. Media Policy Brief 17. London: Media Policy Project, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Briggs, C. (1986). Learning how to ask: A sociolinguistic appraisal of the role of the interview in social science research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Choi, K., and Kirkorian, H. (2016). Touch or watch to learn? Toddlers' object retrieval using contingent and noncontingent video. Psychological Science, 27(5), 726-736. doi:10.1177/0956797616636110
  • De Jong, M.T., and Bus, A.G. (2004). The efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children’s emergent story understanding. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(4), 378 –393. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.39.4.2
  • Dejonckheere, P.J.N., Desoete, A. , Fonck, N., Roderiguez, D., Six L., Vermeersch, T., and Vermeulen, L. (2014). Action-based digital tools: Mathematics learning in 6-year-old children. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 12(1), 61-82. doi:10.14204/ejrep.32.13108
  • Fessakis, G., Gouli, E., and Mavroudi, E. (2013). Problem solving by 5-6 years old kindergarten children in a computer programming environment: A case study. Computers & Education, 63, 87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.11.016
  • Foen, S.N., Zakaria, R., Lai, S. M. and Confessore, G.J. (2016). A study of time use and academic achievement among secondary-school students in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 21(4), 433-448. doi:10.1080/02673843.2013.862733
  • Fuchs, T. and Woessmann, L. (2004). Computers and student learning: Bivariate and multivariate evidence on the availability and use of computers at home and at school, CESIFO Working Paper No:1321. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=619101
  • Hilda K., Kabali, H.K., Irigoyen, M.M., Nunez-Davis, R., Budacki, J.G., Mohanty, S.H., Leister, K.P., and Bonner, R.L. (2015). Exposure and use of mobile media devices by young children. Pediatrics, 136(6), 1044-1050. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-2151
  • Hoshmand, L. T. (1989). Alternate research paradigms: A review and teaching proposal. The Counseling Psychologist, 17(1), 3-79. doi:10.1177/0011000089171001
  • Kaspersky Lab Report (2017). Kaspersky Lab’s Latest Prental Control Report. Retrieved on April, 24, 2018 from https://www.kaspersky.com/about/press-releases/2017_kaspersky-labs-latest-parental-control-report-shows-how-different-children-are-around-the-world
  • Koçak, Ö., Yılmaz, R. M., Küçük, S. and Göktaş, Y. (2019). The educational potential of augmented reality technology: Experiences of instructional designers and practitioners. Journal of Education and Future, 15, 17-36.
  • Lips, M., Eppel, E., McRae, H., Starkey, L., Sylvester, A., Parore, P. and Barlow, L. (2017). Understanding children’s use and experience with digital technologies: Final research report. Retrieved on April 20, 2018 from https://www.victoria.ac.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/960177/Understanding-children-use-and-experience-of-digital-technologies-2017-v2.pdf
  • McPake, J., Plowman, L., and Stephen, C. (2013). Pre-school children creating and communicating with digital technologies in the home. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(3), 421-431. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01323.
  • Mills, K. (2011). 'I'm makin g it different to the book': Transmediation in young children's multimodal and digital texts. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36(3), 56-65.
  • Neumann, M.M., and Neumann D.L. (2014). Touch screen tablets and emergent literacy. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42, 231-239. doi:10.1007/s10643-013-
  • OECD (2012). The Protection of Children Online. Retrieved on April 14, 2018 from https://www.oecd.org/sti/ieconomy/childrenonline_with_cover.pdf
  • Özdemir, S., Çetin, E., Çelik, A. Berikan, B., and Yüksel, A.O. (2017).Furnushing new generations with productive ICT skills to make them the maker of their own future, Journal of Education and Future, 11, 137-157
  • Patton, M.Q. (2014) Nitel Araştırma ve Değerlendirme Yöntemleri, (Trans.Ed: Bütün, M., Demir, S.B.) Pegem Akademi, Ankara.
  • Periathiruvadi, S. and Rinn, A.N. (2012). Technology in gifted education: A review of best practices and empirical research. Journal Of Research on Technology in Education, 45(2), 153–169. doi: 10.1080/15391523.2012.10782601
  • Samuelsson, U. (2010) ICT use among 13‐year‐old swedish children, Learning, Media and Technology, 35(1), 15-30. doi: 10.1080/17439880903560936
  • Sheehan, K. J., and Uttal, D. H. (2016). Children’s learning from touch screens: a dual representation perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1220. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01220
  • Shieh, C., and Yu, L. (2016). A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Discovery Instruction towards Students’ Learning Achievement and Learning Retention. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(4), 833-842. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2015.1554a
  • Simpson, A., Walsh, M., and Rowsell, J. (2013). The digital reading path: researching modes and multidirectionality by tablets. Literacy, 47(3), 123-130. doi:10.1111/lit.12009
  • Sutton, J., and Austin, Z. (2015). Qualitative research: Data collection, analysis, and management, The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 68(3), 226-231.Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485510/
  • Torsheim, T., Eriksson, L., Schnohr, C. W., Hansen, F., Bjarnason, T., and Välimaa, R. (2010). Screen-based activities and physical complaints among adolescents from the Nordic countries. BMC Public Health, 10(324). Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/324.
  • TÜİK (2014). İstatistiklerle Çocuk, Ankara , Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Matbaası UNESCO. (2017). International Forum on ICT and Education 2030. Retrieved on April, 18, 2018 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002595/259587e.pdf
  • Wainwright, D. K., and Linebarger, D. L. (2009). Television can teach: Elements of effective educational television. In N. N. Nagaraj(Ed), Effect of Television on Children (pp. 24-44). Hyderabad, India: Icfai University Press.
  • Ward, J.H. (2012). Managing Data: Content Analysis Methodology. Unpublished Manuscript, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved May 7, 2019 from https://www.impactzone.co/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/final-ca-lr-jhw-updated-compressed.pdf
  • We Are Social. (2018). Global Digital Report 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from https://digitalreport.wearesocial.com/
  • We Are Social. (2019). Global Digital Report 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2020 from https://www.digitalinformationworld.com/2019/02/internet-users-spend-more-than-a-quarter-of-their-lives-online.html
  • Vesisenaho, M., Dillon, P., Havu-Nuutinen, S., Nousiainen, T., Valtonen, T., and Wang, R. (2017). Creative improvisations with information and communication technology to support learning: A conceptual and developmental framework. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 6(3), 229-250.
  • Wiecha, J., Peterson, K., Ludwig, D., Kim, J., Sobol, A. and Gortmaker, S. (2006). When children eat what they watch: Impact of television viewing on dietary ıntake in youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 160(4), 436-42. doi:10.1080/17439880903560936
  • Yaman, F., Dönmez, O., Kabakçı Yurdakul, I., and Odabaşı, H.F. (2017). Primary school students’ encounters against online risks from the perspectives of schools counselor teachers. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI), 8 (4), 415-427.
  • Yelland, N.J. (2018). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Young children and multimodal learning with tablets. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), 847-858.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimsek, H. (2016). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri, Ankara, Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2013). The effects of 3d animated movies and ınteractive applications on development of visual perception in 60-72- months-old children. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design, 3(3), 101-108. doi:10.4018/ijopcd.2013070107
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2016). The effects of three dimensional (3D) animated movies and interactive applications on development of visual perception of preschoolers. Education and Science, 41(188), 255-271. doi: 10.15390/EB.2016.6743
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2017a). Three dimensional animated movies, touch screen interactive applications and visual motor development of five-year- old children. International Journal of E-Adoption, 9(1), 1-10. doi: 10.4018/IJEA.2017010101
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2017b). STEM education in child development. In R. Efe (Ed.) Developments in Health Sciences (pp. 405-410), Sofia, St. Kliment Ohridski University Press.

Çocukların Dijital Teknolojiyi Üretim Odaklı Gelişmiş Amaçlarla Kullanmaları

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2, 781 - 798, 26.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.30703/cije.773845

Abstract

Alan yazında çocukların dijital teknoloji kullanımı iki yönlü ele alınmaktadır. Bir tarafta, dijital cihazların üretim odaklı ve gelişmiş amaçlarla kullanımı bildirilirken, diğer tarafta aşırı ve gereksiz kullanımı kaygıya neden olmaktadır. Çocuklardan bazıları dijital cihazlarını kullanma konusunda sosyal medya takibi örneğinde olduğu gibi tüketimden öteye geçemezken, bazı çocuklar ise dijital cihazlarını kodlama, üç boyutlu tasarım, dijital kitap, oyun yazma gibi üretim amacıyla kullanmaktadır. Bu nitel çalışma, eğitimciler için sonuç çıkarmaya odaklanarak fenomenolojik yaklaşımı benimsemiştir ve çocukların dijital cihazlarını kullanım süresi, amacı, tercihleri ve bu cihazları kullanırken ya da dijital cihazlara ulaşamadıkları durumlardaki duygularını derinlemesine inceleyerek çocukların teknolojik cihaz kullanımı olgusuna ışık tutmayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışmaya 7-15 yaş arası toplam 61 çocuk katılmıştır. Çocuklar, ülkenin farklı bölgeleri, farklı okul türleri ve farklı sosyo-ekonomik seviyelerinden gelmektedir. Araştırmaya katılan farklı özelliklere sahip çocukların dijital cihaz kullanımlarının benzerlik ve farklılıklarının tespit edilmesinin, dijital teknolojinin faydalı kullanımını motive eden veya boş zaman aracı olarak tüketime yol açan faktörleri ortaya çıkarabileceği düşünülmektedir. Araştırma bulguları çocukların bilgisayar ve tablet kullanımlarının okul, kişisel gelişim ve eğlence olmak üzere üç ana başlık altında toplandığını, telefon kullanımlarının ise iletişim ve eğlence olmak üzere iki başlık altında toplandığını göstermektedir. Bu çalışmanın bulguları öğretmenlere, öğrencilere teknolojinin faydalı kullanımı konusunda rehberlik etmeleri için önerilerde bulunulmasını sağlamaktadır. Ayrıca, çalışma uygulama ve / veya politika için daha geniş bir kapsamda öneriler sunmaktadır.

References

  • Aktaş, E., Balkan, B., ve Karapınar, K.(2009). Biga’da bilim teknolojileri kullanımının öğrencilerin başarı ve harcama düzeylerine olası etkileri. Kocaeli Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(7), 39-48. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Erkan_Aktas/publication/48376290_Biga'da_Bilisim_Teknolojileri_Kullaniminin_Ogrencilerin_Basari_ve_Harcama_Duzeylerine_Olasi_Etkileri/links/544011150cf2be1758cff918.pdf
  • Altun, D. (2018). The efficacy of multimedia stories in preschoolers’ explicit and implicit story comprehensio. Early Childhood Education Journal
  • Aral, N., and Doğan Keskin, A. (2018). Examining 0-6 year olds’ use of technological devices from parents’ points of view. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addiction, 5, 177–208.http://dx.doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2018.5.2.0054
  • APA Task Force On Violent Media (2015). Technical Report on the Review of the Violent Video Game Literature, Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/violent-media.aspx
  • Aydın, B. (2017). Three birds with a stone: Technology integration in language education. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 6(2), 177-190.
  • Beetham, H., and Sharpe, R. (2007). Rethinking pedagogy for a digital age: designing and delivering e-learning. Routledge Publishing, NY.
  • Blum-Ross, A., and S. Livingstone (2016) Families and screen time: Current advice and emerging research. Media Policy Brief 17. London: Media Policy Project, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • Briggs, C. (1986). Learning how to ask: A sociolinguistic appraisal of the role of the interview in social science research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Choi, K., and Kirkorian, H. (2016). Touch or watch to learn? Toddlers' object retrieval using contingent and noncontingent video. Psychological Science, 27(5), 726-736. doi:10.1177/0956797616636110
  • De Jong, M.T., and Bus, A.G. (2004). The efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children’s emergent story understanding. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(4), 378 –393. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.39.4.2
  • Dejonckheere, P.J.N., Desoete, A. , Fonck, N., Roderiguez, D., Six L., Vermeersch, T., and Vermeulen, L. (2014). Action-based digital tools: Mathematics learning in 6-year-old children. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 12(1), 61-82. doi:10.14204/ejrep.32.13108
  • Fessakis, G., Gouli, E., and Mavroudi, E. (2013). Problem solving by 5-6 years old kindergarten children in a computer programming environment: A case study. Computers & Education, 63, 87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.11.016
  • Foen, S.N., Zakaria, R., Lai, S. M. and Confessore, G.J. (2016). A study of time use and academic achievement among secondary-school students in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 21(4), 433-448. doi:10.1080/02673843.2013.862733
  • Fuchs, T. and Woessmann, L. (2004). Computers and student learning: Bivariate and multivariate evidence on the availability and use of computers at home and at school, CESIFO Working Paper No:1321. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=619101
  • Hilda K., Kabali, H.K., Irigoyen, M.M., Nunez-Davis, R., Budacki, J.G., Mohanty, S.H., Leister, K.P., and Bonner, R.L. (2015). Exposure and use of mobile media devices by young children. Pediatrics, 136(6), 1044-1050. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-2151
  • Hoshmand, L. T. (1989). Alternate research paradigms: A review and teaching proposal. The Counseling Psychologist, 17(1), 3-79. doi:10.1177/0011000089171001
  • Kaspersky Lab Report (2017). Kaspersky Lab’s Latest Prental Control Report. Retrieved on April, 24, 2018 from https://www.kaspersky.com/about/press-releases/2017_kaspersky-labs-latest-parental-control-report-shows-how-different-children-are-around-the-world
  • Koçak, Ö., Yılmaz, R. M., Küçük, S. and Göktaş, Y. (2019). The educational potential of augmented reality technology: Experiences of instructional designers and practitioners. Journal of Education and Future, 15, 17-36.
  • Lips, M., Eppel, E., McRae, H., Starkey, L., Sylvester, A., Parore, P. and Barlow, L. (2017). Understanding children’s use and experience with digital technologies: Final research report. Retrieved on April 20, 2018 from https://www.victoria.ac.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/960177/Understanding-children-use-and-experience-of-digital-technologies-2017-v2.pdf
  • McPake, J., Plowman, L., and Stephen, C. (2013). Pre-school children creating and communicating with digital technologies in the home. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(3), 421-431. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01323.
  • Mills, K. (2011). 'I'm makin g it different to the book': Transmediation in young children's multimodal and digital texts. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36(3), 56-65.
  • Neumann, M.M., and Neumann D.L. (2014). Touch screen tablets and emergent literacy. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42, 231-239. doi:10.1007/s10643-013-
  • OECD (2012). The Protection of Children Online. Retrieved on April 14, 2018 from https://www.oecd.org/sti/ieconomy/childrenonline_with_cover.pdf
  • Özdemir, S., Çetin, E., Çelik, A. Berikan, B., and Yüksel, A.O. (2017).Furnushing new generations with productive ICT skills to make them the maker of their own future, Journal of Education and Future, 11, 137-157
  • Patton, M.Q. (2014) Nitel Araştırma ve Değerlendirme Yöntemleri, (Trans.Ed: Bütün, M., Demir, S.B.) Pegem Akademi, Ankara.
  • Periathiruvadi, S. and Rinn, A.N. (2012). Technology in gifted education: A review of best practices and empirical research. Journal Of Research on Technology in Education, 45(2), 153–169. doi: 10.1080/15391523.2012.10782601
  • Samuelsson, U. (2010) ICT use among 13‐year‐old swedish children, Learning, Media and Technology, 35(1), 15-30. doi: 10.1080/17439880903560936
  • Sheehan, K. J., and Uttal, D. H. (2016). Children’s learning from touch screens: a dual representation perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1220. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01220
  • Shieh, C., and Yu, L. (2016). A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Discovery Instruction towards Students’ Learning Achievement and Learning Retention. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(4), 833-842. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2015.1554a
  • Simpson, A., Walsh, M., and Rowsell, J. (2013). The digital reading path: researching modes and multidirectionality by tablets. Literacy, 47(3), 123-130. doi:10.1111/lit.12009
  • Sutton, J., and Austin, Z. (2015). Qualitative research: Data collection, analysis, and management, The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 68(3), 226-231.Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4485510/
  • Torsheim, T., Eriksson, L., Schnohr, C. W., Hansen, F., Bjarnason, T., and Välimaa, R. (2010). Screen-based activities and physical complaints among adolescents from the Nordic countries. BMC Public Health, 10(324). Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/324.
  • TÜİK (2014). İstatistiklerle Çocuk, Ankara , Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Matbaası UNESCO. (2017). International Forum on ICT and Education 2030. Retrieved on April, 18, 2018 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002595/259587e.pdf
  • Wainwright, D. K., and Linebarger, D. L. (2009). Television can teach: Elements of effective educational television. In N. N. Nagaraj(Ed), Effect of Television on Children (pp. 24-44). Hyderabad, India: Icfai University Press.
  • Ward, J.H. (2012). Managing Data: Content Analysis Methodology. Unpublished Manuscript, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved May 7, 2019 from https://www.impactzone.co/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/final-ca-lr-jhw-updated-compressed.pdf
  • We Are Social. (2018). Global Digital Report 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from https://digitalreport.wearesocial.com/
  • We Are Social. (2019). Global Digital Report 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2020 from https://www.digitalinformationworld.com/2019/02/internet-users-spend-more-than-a-quarter-of-their-lives-online.html
  • Vesisenaho, M., Dillon, P., Havu-Nuutinen, S., Nousiainen, T., Valtonen, T., and Wang, R. (2017). Creative improvisations with information and communication technology to support learning: A conceptual and developmental framework. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 6(3), 229-250.
  • Wiecha, J., Peterson, K., Ludwig, D., Kim, J., Sobol, A. and Gortmaker, S. (2006). When children eat what they watch: Impact of television viewing on dietary ıntake in youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 160(4), 436-42. doi:10.1080/17439880903560936
  • Yaman, F., Dönmez, O., Kabakçı Yurdakul, I., and Odabaşı, H.F. (2017). Primary school students’ encounters against online risks from the perspectives of schools counselor teachers. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI), 8 (4), 415-427.
  • Yelland, N.J. (2018). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Young children and multimodal learning with tablets. British Journal of Educational Technology, 49(5), 847-858.
  • Yıldırım, A. ve Şimsek, H. (2016). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri, Ankara, Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2013). The effects of 3d animated movies and ınteractive applications on development of visual perception in 60-72- months-old children. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design, 3(3), 101-108. doi:10.4018/ijopcd.2013070107
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2016). The effects of three dimensional (3D) animated movies and interactive applications on development of visual perception of preschoolers. Education and Science, 41(188), 255-271. doi: 10.15390/EB.2016.6743
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2017a). Three dimensional animated movies, touch screen interactive applications and visual motor development of five-year- old children. International Journal of E-Adoption, 9(1), 1-10. doi: 10.4018/IJEA.2017010101
  • Yücelyiğit, S., and Aral, N. (2017b). STEM education in child development. In R. Efe (Ed.) Developments in Health Sciences (pp. 405-410), Sofia, St. Kliment Ohridski University Press.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Seçil YÜCELYİĞİT> (Primary Author)
TED UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-6886-5997
Türkiye


Neriman ARAL>
ANKARA UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-9266-938X
Türkiye

Publication Date June 26, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 2

Cite

APA Yücelyiğit, S. & Aral, N. (2021). Children’s Sophisticated Use of Digital Technology . Cumhuriyet Uluslararası Eğitim Dergisi , 10 (2) , 781-798 . DOI: 10.30703/cije.773845

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